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Different types of forests with high biodiversity

Photos from Sweden and Norway. The Red list categories in the photo captions are from the Swedish National Red List 2020

A small stream surrounded by a Luzulo-Fagetum beech forest (9110) with slow-growing trees and red-listed species like Megalaria laureri (EN), Alyxoria ochrocheila (NT), Pyrenula nitida (NT) and Lecanora glabrata (NT). At a glance, the old slow-growing trees are easily overlooked and mistaken for younger trees. Faxeröd, Sweden.
Coniferous forest in Tresticklan National Park
Late successional coniferous forest (Western taiga, 9010) with lots of dead wood. Home to red-listed species like Goodyera repens (VU), Anthoporia albobrunnea (VU), Alectoria sarmentosa (NT), Hertelidea botryosa (NT) and Carbonicola anthracophila (NT). Tresticklan National Park, Sweden.
Jyltingsvola in Norway
Natural montane forest in Gutulia National Park in Norway. The old pine snags are home to species like Letharia vulpina (NT), Calicium denigratum (NT), Ramboldia elabens (NT) and Carbonicola spp. (NT).
An old beech forest (9110) by a bog makes a good recipe for a rich epiphyte flora. The trees have a thick layer of Porella platyphylla, Neckera spp. and Antitrichia curtipendula. And several red-listed species of lichens.
Coniferous forest in Tresticklan National Park
Late successional coniferous forest (Western taiga, 9010) with lots of old trees and dead wood. Tresticklan National Park, Sweden.
Christinelund - nemoral forest with beech and oak
Late successional oak (9160) and beech forest (9130) with a strong representation of Anemone nemorosa, Melica uniflora, Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Stellaria holostea. Some of the red-listed species found here are Veronica montana (NT), Opegrapha vermicellifera (NT), Pyrenula nitida (NT), Fistulina hepatica (NT) and Ganoderma pfeifferi (EN). Christinelund nature reserve, Sweden.
Old pine forest with lots of dead wood (Western taiga, 9010). Gutulia National Park, Norway.
Very old beech tree in Trollehallar, Sweden
A very old beech tree in the ravine Trollehallar, Sweden. The forest in the ravine consists of Asperulo- and Luzulo-Fagetum beech forests (9110, 9130) as well as Fennoscandian deciduous swamp woods (9080). The late successional forests with large amounts of dead wood and a stable micro-climate makes for a high species richness with lots of red-listed species. Some of the species found here are Gloeoporus pannocinctus (VU), Multiclavula mucida (VU), Gyalecta carneola (VU), Biatoridium monasteriense (VU) and Bacidia rosella (VU).
Late successional forest with old trees and large amounts of dead wood
Gutulia National Park in Norway is home to natural late succession forests with lots of old trees and dead wood (Western taiga, 9010). Some of the trees in the national park are more than 400 years old.
Old growth beech forest
Natural beech forest with old trees and lots of dead wood. The beech trees have a rich epiphyte flora with species like Pyrenula nitida (NT), Lecanora glabrata (NT), Pertusaria hymenea and Mycobilimbia pilularis. Lönnhässle, Sweden.
Mixed coniferous forest (Western taiga, 9010) with spruce, pine, birch and goat willow. Home to at least 40 red-listed species (not counting birds). Some of the endangered ones are Chaenothecopsis haematopus (VU), Acolium karelicum (VU), Bryoria bicolor (EN), Anthoporia albobrunnea (VU) and Neoantrodia infirma (EN). Grå-Larsknipen, Sweden.
Luzulo-Fagetum beech forest (9110) by the lake Rössjön in the south of Sweden. Many of the slow-growing beech trees by the lake are covered in a mosaic of red-listed species and indicator species like Pyrenula nitida (NT), Lecanora glabrata (NT), Opegrapha vermicellifera (NT), Zwackhia viridis and Pertusaria hymenea.
Montane forest in Långfjället nature reserve by the lake Grövelsjön in Sweden. A well known destination for hiking and fishing. Less known for it's biodiversity and the red-listed, forest living species like Platismatia norvegica (VU), Evernia mesomorpha (VU) and Lobaria scrobiculata (NT).